Boulder Skies at Dusk

searchinGirl - searchinTruth - always searchin...

Patsy Ramsey

Background on Patsy Ramsey

  • The April 1996 issue of Women's Magazine profiled Patsy Ramsey and included a lot of personal information about her and the family.

The PDI Theories.

  • Motivation. There are many different variations of PDI theories, but the majority are centered on an "accidental death" followed by efforts to cover this up and stage an intruder killing. Internet poster wombat explains Patsy's motivation for covering up an accidental death as being shaped by her belief that due to cancer she might not have much longer to live, so even a short prison sentence for negligent homicide (e.g., 3 years) could have been a death sentence.
  • Books. Books have been written presenting PDI theories (this excludes books that provide RDI theories without specifying which parent killed JBR).
    • Dresbold & Kwalwasser 2006. Michelle Dresbold and James Kwalwasser. Sex, Lies and Handwriting.
    • Hodges 1998. Andrew G. Hodges. A Mother Gone Bad: The Hidden Confession of JonBenét’s Killer.
    • Hodges 2000. Andrew G. Hodges. Who Will Speak for JonBenét? A New Investigator Reads Between the Lines.
    • Hoffman-Pugh 2010. Linda Hoffman-Pugh. The Death of an Innocent.
    • McDonough 2016. Sam Dennis McDonough. 120 Clues That Show Who Killed JonBenet.
    • Pietras 2014. David Pietras. The Tragic Little Pageant Princess.
    • Pietras & Shay 2015. David Pietras and Julia Shay. The Bloodstained Tiara.
    • Thomas 2000. Steve Thomas with Donald A. Davis. JonBenét: Inside the Ramsey Murder Investigation From a Leading Detective on the Case (Hardcover).
    • Thomas 2000a. Steve Thomas with Donald A. Davis. JonBenét: Inside the Ramsey Murder Investigation From a Leading Detective on the Case (Paperback).

Bed-Wetting Rage Theory

  • Steve Thomas Theory. The most infamous and detailed of these is former lead detective Steve Thomas's "bed-wetting rage" theory, elaborated in his book. This is the theory used to support Chris Wolf's libel suit against the Ramseys in which he argued that they knowingly libeled him by naming him as a suspect even though Patsy had actually committed the crime. As articulated in Judge Carnes' decision in that case (Carnes 2003:9), the theory was as follows (all allusions to "plaintiff" refer to Chris Wolf):
    • "Plaintiff...contends that Mrs. Ramsey did not go to sleep the night of December 25, but instead killed her daughter and spent the rest of the night covering her crime, as evidenced by the fact she was wearing the same outfit the following morning. (PSMF P 15.)"
    • "He further posits that Mrs. Ramsey authored the Ransom Note in an attempt to stage a crime scene to make it appear as if an intruder had entered their home. (PSMF P 16; PSDMF PP 38-39.)"
    • "Plaintiff theorizes that, at some point in the night, JonBenet awoke after wetting her bed n4 and upon learning of the bed-wetting, Mrs. Ramsey grew so angry that an "explosive encounter in the child's bathroom" occurred, during which tirade, Mrs. Ramsey "slammed" JonBenet's head against "a hard surface, such as the edge of the tub, inflicting a mortal head wound." (PSDMF PP 45, 47.)"
    • "Plaintiff further contends, based again solely on Mr. Thomas's speculation, that "Mrs. Ramsey thought JonBenet was dead, but in fact she was unconscious with her heart still beating." (PSDMF P 47.) Mr. Thomas then surmises that "it was that critical moment in which she had to either call for help or find an alternative explanation for her daughter's death." (PSDMF P 48.) Plaintiff then speculates that Mrs. Ramsey chose the latter route and spent the remainder of the night staging an elaborate coverup of the incident."
    • "Plaintiff also theorizes, based on the presence of the unidentified matter in JonBenet's stomach that, contrary to Mrs. Ramsey's testimony, she was up during the night and fed JonBenet the pineapple. (PSDMF P 45.)"
    • "Specifically, plaintiff theorizes that, with Mr. Ramsey and Burke still asleep, Mrs. Ramsey moved the body of JonBenet to the basement, returned upstairs to draft the Ransom Note, then returned to the basement where she "could have seen--perhaps by detecting a faint heartbeat or a sound or slight movement--that although completely unconscious, JonBenet was not dead." (PSDMF PP 49-50.)"
    • "In Mr. Thomas's scenario then, rather than being grateful that her child was alive, Mrs. Ramsey nevertheless decided to finish the job off by fashioning a garrote from one of her paintbrushes, looping the cord around the girl's neck, and then choking JonBenet to death. (PSDMF PP 51-52.) Plaintiff notes that the fact JonBenet was "choked from behind" is consistent with the murder being committed by someone who knew JonBenet and did not want to look at her face as he or she killed her." A new book by Laurence Smith to be released in 2006 describes the motivation underlying this scenario: "Patsy Ramsey was led to believe that the child’s apparent unconscious state from the accident was fatal, or that Jon Benet would regain consciousness. A parent would have to explain to a hospital emergency room how the child suffered the accident. Which, may have been perceived to be embarrassing for the parent. Furthermore, the child might have told someone at the hospital how she came to have the accident, which also could have proved embarrassing for the parent."
    • "After murdering her child and staging the crime, plaintiff opines that, to cover her tracks, Mrs. Ramsey must have taken the items she used in the staging out of the house, "perhaps dropping them into a nearby storm sewer or among Christmas debris and wrappings in a neighbor's trash can." (PSDMF PP 53-54.)"
    • "Plaintiff claims that Mrs. Ramsey next placed the Ransom Note in a place "where she would be sure to 'find' it." (PDSMF P 53.)"
    • "Plaintiff contends Mr. Ramsey probably first grew suspicious while reading the Ransom Note that morning, which surmise is again based solely on the opinion of Mr. Thomas. (PSDMF P 56.)"
    • "Plaintiff speculates that upon examining the Ransom Note, Mr. Ramsey "must have seen his wife's writing mannerisms all over it, everything but her signature." (PSDMF P 56.) Upon determining that his wife was involved in JonBenet's disappearance, plaintiff surmises that Mr. Ramsey chose to protect his wife, rather than to facilitate the capture of his daughter's murderer. (PSDMF P 57.)" (Carnes 2003:9). "According to this theory, Mr. Ramsey became complicit only the next day, after the Note was discovered, when he realized that the handwriting on the Note was his wife's. Supra at 10. Under this proposed timeline, he would not have been involved in making the bondage device." (Carnes 2003:Note 33).
  • Hoffman-Pugh Theory. The Ramsey's housekeeper, Linda Pugh-Hoffman also wrote a book based on the bed-wetting rage scenario: (chapter 1 here. Internet poster zigzag has provided a detailed critique of LHP's theory here, here and here. Internet poster Olivia has has questioned the consistency/accuracy of LHP's account.
  • Patsy Alone Involved in Initial Cover-up. Some theories have Patsy Ramsey covering up this accident herself, at least initially.
  • Darnay Hoffman Theory. A solo cover-up by Patsy allegedly would parallel the Lindbergh "kidnapping hoax" (which Darnay Hoffman believes to be staged by the parents).
  • Laurence Smith Theory. In a soon-to-be-released book, Laurence Smith argues that Patsy did not tell John Ramsey about the accident, which is what allowed him to act naturally when questioned by police investigators.

Marital Rage Theory

  • Darnay Hoffman Theory. "In May 1997, Mr. Hoffman sent Mr. Hunter a second letter in which Mr. Hoffman theorized that Mrs. Ramsey killed her daughter, through a blow to the head, in a fit of rage caused by unhappiness, depression and marital problems. (SMF P 340; PSMF P 340.) (Carnes 2003:41).
  • "The Boulder authorities did not take Mr. Hoffman's unsubstantiated theories seriously and considered much of his submissions to be "off the wall." (SMF P 341; PSMF P 341.)" (Carnes 2003:41).

John Caught in Act

  • The Globe Story. The 4-28-97 issue of The Globe (i.e., 2 days before the Ramseys had their first official police interviews) included this story: “Police believe she died in fight after mom walked into dad's sick sex games . . . JonBenet's mom was awakened from a sound sleep by eerie, terrifying noises that echoed through the darkened, three-story mansion. Patsy was alarmed. For months she suspected her daughter was being molested and now in the early morning hours of Dec. 26, she saw that her husband was missing from the king size bed they share. Grabbing a heavy Maglite flashlight, the mother crept down the stairs to her daughter's bedroom - her heart sick with dread over what she expected to find. This chilling scenario is part of a shocking new theory Colorado investigators have pieced together of the final hours of the slain beauty queen. Police now believe that Patsy caught her husband strangling JonBenet during a sick sex game and the innocent child was killed during a ferocious fight between her enraged mom and her father, say sources”
  • A parallel story involving The Globe in which Patsy reportedly had told her sister Pam Paugh that she had caught John molesting JonBenet again, that Patsy swung at John but hit JonBenet instead.

Sexual Abuse by Patsy

  • Dale Yeager, executive director of Seraph, a firm asked by BPD to analyze the ransom note, has publicly stated that Patsy Ramsey is a sociopath who both abused JBR and killed her.

Munchausen-by-proxy Syndrome

  • Dr. Rusty Morris View. "Patsy Ramsey suffered from a bizarre mental illness that helped spark a 'rage-fueled episode' leading to JonBenet's savage murder--that's the explosive scenario laid out by forensic psychologist Dr. Rusty Morris. 'I always wondered if there might be Munchausen-by-proxy Syndrome going on in the Ramsey home. That's a disorder where a parent fabricates symptoms in a child. A person with this condition craves attention and will do anything to get it, even putting a child at risk.' Morris cites the 27 trips JonBenet made to her pediatrician over 3 years as a pointer. She adds that the girl's chronic bedwetting may have been the trigger that caused Patsy to explode in a rage. 'I believe Patsy's stressors overtook her that night,' says Morris. 'This poor little girl had a violent end and her killer got away with it. The case ended with Patsy's death.'" (The Globe, December 25, 2007)

Child Pornography Ring

  • Other theories accuse Patsy of wittingly or unwittingly involving JBR in a pornography ring

Ritual Sacrifice

  • Seraph Report. Seraph Security Consulting and Training Company in Berwyn was asked by BPD in 1997 to analyze the RN. In 1998 they were asked to provide a psychological profile of Patsy Ramsey. The first report was prepared by Dale Yeager, CEO and criminal analyst at Seraph. The second report was prepared by Yeager, and by Denise Knoke, currently a K-9 police officer at the Brandywine Regional Police Department in Downingtown.
  • Qualifications. Dale Yeager has been a criminal analyst since 1988. He has extensive training in criminal psychology, forensic psychology, sex crimes investigation and crime scene forensics, including training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center.
  • Conclusions About Patsy Ramsey. The report concluded:
    • "Patsy Ramsey is a delusional sociopath. Based on our experience with religious sociopaths, we believe that she saw JonBenet's death as a sacrifice for 'sins' she had committed. Obviously Psalm 118 does not ask for human sacrifice, but in her delusional mind-set she interpreted verse 27 as request by God for a para-redemptive act."
    • "you are investigating a child's murder with ritualistic overtones. Mrs. Ramsey's motives and post incident actions cannot be understood with rational thought. This crime was committed by a delusional individual who has convinced herself of her own innocence. Sociopaths always view their violent actions as justified ..."

Literature-Inspired Mental Illness

  • Extensive parallels between the writings of Dame Muriel Sparks and the details/circumstances involved in JBR's death.
  • BrotherMoon Theory. Parallels between The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and the details/circumstances involved in JBR's death.
  • Mark Soukap Theory. Soukap argues "the death of JonBenét was not due to an accident, as was the prevalent theory, but was the intentional act of a person in the grip of a psychosis. He has based this conclusion on an analysis of the RN and PR's favorite literature, including The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. More specifically, he claims:
    • Motivation. "Patsy killed JonBenet deliberately. No one else was involved. There was no staging for police. Everything that was done was done by Patsy for Patsy as part of a psychotic fantasy revolving around an imagined relationship with a supernatural being, the fear of judgment by that God and the fear of death...
    • "The goal was not to kill JonBenet but to make an Angel out of her."
    • "Patsy herself said after the funeral "JonBenet is in Heaven with God awaiting her mother's arrival and it won't be long." Patsy put JonBenet in that heaven to complete the fantasy and in her mind assure her life after death."
    • "As the dedication in DOI says: Wherever we go ...Whatever we do ... [We're gonna go through it together ...]"
  • Lack of Staging. "What people mistakingly take as staging for police had symbolic meaning known only to Patsy. This includes the ransom note. There were two aspects to what was done to the body: the ligatures were suspension devices, the body was posed and viewed and then taken down, placed in the small room, wrapped and the duct tape applied to set the kidnapping scene up in Patsy's mind. The ransom note is full of the ideas that swirled in Patsy's mind that night and plagued her for many years."

Incriminating Evidence Related to Patsy Ramsey

  • General Observations
    • Mothers Who Kill Their Children. See Jane Huckerby. "Women who kill their children: case study and conclusions concerning the differences in the fall from maternal grace by Khoua Her and Andrea Yates." Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, June 2003. Toilet Training and Child Abuse. In guidelines appearing in Pediatrics, it is asserted "more child abuse occurs during toilet training than during any other developmental step..."
    • Head Trauma and Child Abuse. The Child Abuse Prevention Council states "Head trauma is the leading cause of death in child abuse." CAPC further asserts that "child Death Review Teams in Colorado and Oregon have identified some "triggers" that occurred just before many children's death from abuse" (of the 4 listed triggers, the 3rd listed is "failed potty training."
    • Cases of Mothers Who Strangle Children. One mother killed her four young children through strangulation.

    Grand Jury Indictment

    • In 1996, the grand jury foreman signed a true bill for the following charges:
    • COUNT IV (a) On or between December 2S t and December 26, 1996, in Boulder County, Colorado, Patricia Paugh Ramsey did unlawfully, knowingly, recklessly and feloniously permit a child to be unreasonably placed in a situation which pos~ a threat of injury to the child's life or health, which resulted in the death of JonBenet Ramsey, a child under the age of sixteen. This charge is Child Abuse Resulting in Death, a class two felony, which has a statute of limitations that expired on Christmas, 1999
    • COUNT VII On Or about December 25, and December 26, 1996 in Boulder CountY, Colorado, Patricia Paugh Ramsey did unlawfully, knowingly and feloniously render assistance to a person, with intent to hinder, delay and prevent the discovery, detention, apprehension, prosecution, conviction and punishment of such person for the commission of a cnme, knowing the person' b~ing assisted has committed and was suapec.ted of ~e crime of Murder in the First Degree and Child Abuse Resulting in Death.
    • Parallel charges were filed against John Ramsey.
    • A grand juror who broke secrecy rules told ABC's 20/20 in December 2016:
      • "They were told to indict only if they found probable cause, in other words if they found it was more likely than not that the Ramseys killed their own daughter,”
      • 20/20s Amy Robach says. “Was there enough evidence to indict John and Patsy Ramsey for a crime?” Robach asks the juror, who responds: “Based upon the evidence that was presented I believe that was correct.”
      • “Based on the evidence you were presented do you feel you know who killed JonBenet Ramsey?” Robach asks. The juror responds: “I highly suspect, I do.”
      • However Boulder DA Alex Hunter opted not to sign any of these charges, so the case was not pursued (more below).
      • More Serious Charges Considered? Denver attorney Craig Silverman speculates: "There is a class one felony variation of Child Abuse Resulting in Death which is a form of First Degree Murder. The DA would need to prove that a person in a position of trust (John Ramsey and Patsy Ramsey),caused the child abuse which resulted in six year old JonBenet’s death, or acted as an accomplice for the person who did. I surmise the grand jury considered this charge (as Count IV) for each Ramsey parent, but did not achieve the necessary nine out of twelve majorities to vote it up (True Bill) or down (no True Bill)."

    Boulder Law Enforcement Opinions

    • Views Within BPD. According to reporter Charlie Brennan, [Steve] Thomas' book made clear his belief that Patsy Ramsey was responsible for the murder, and attributes that belief to others in his department, up to and including Boulder Police Chief Mark Beckner, when Beckner was the detective bureau commander."
    • Seraph Report. The Seraph report dated July 29, 1997 and written by Dale Yeager at the request of BPD concluded from the available forensic evidence:
      • "that the individual who committed this act had no previous experience with the killing of a human being."
      • The report continues "the strangulation and blunt trauma to the skull meant that the offender tried one method of killing the girl and then changed to a different method out of frustration. One of these methods failed and the person resorted to a second method to kill the victim. The contusions and other secondary injuries may have been attempts to control the victim during a struggle or strikes of frustration when the child did not die on the first attempt.
      • "Based on my experience, this crime was done by an intimate, a person who knew the victim and had an emotional attachment to the victim. If the forensic information that I have is correct, the offender attempted strangulation first. The offender was in my opinion connected to the victim in an emotional way."
    • It is unknown whether anyone at BPD ever subscribed to this theory, but Seraph was asked in 1998 to work up a specific profile of Patsy Ramsey, co-authored by Yeager and Denise Knoke. That report concluded "Patsy Ramsey is a delusional sociopath. Based on our experience with religious sociopaths, we believe that she saw JonBenet's death as a sacrifice for sins she had committed." The fact that Seraph was asked for this second report suggests BPD found their analysis credible.

Forensic Evidence

  • 1. Fiber Evidence. Fibers matched to the red sweater Patsy was wearing that night were found in places key to the crime: the paintbrush caddy she kept her art supplies in, the blanket used to wrap JonBenet's body, on the sticky side of the duct tape placed over JonBenet's mouth, and tied into both knots of the ligature used to strangle JonBenet. Patsy denies she ever went near these places wearing that sweater. In the interviews with Boulder prosecutors in August, 2000, prosecutor Bruce Levin summed up the evidence: MR. LEVIN: "I think that is probably fair. Based on the state of the art scientific testing, we believe the fibers from her jacket were found in the paint tray, were found tied into the ligature found on JonBenet's neck, were found on the blanket that she is wrapped in, were found on the duct tape that is found on the mouth, and the question is, can she explain to us how those fibers appeared in those places that are associated with her daughter's death. And I understand you are not going to answer those."
  • 2. Bed Not Slept In? According to veteran Colorado journalist and former editor-in-chief of The Denver Post Chuck Green, "some investigators say that Patsy Ramsey was wearing the same clothes on the morning of the murder as she wore the previous night, and that her side of the Ramsey bed hadn’t been slept in."

Handwriting Evidence

  • All told, 10 professional experts of varying qualifications hired by various parties in this case and 6 authors/Internet posters (also of varying qualifications) have formally analyzed the RN and concluded Patsy is the author.

Dubious Lie Detector Test

  • Although PR passed a lie detector test, skeptics are dubious about this test for a variety of reasons:
    • The Ramseys originally contacted Gene Parker who told them he would insist on urine tests; the Ramseys did not pursue this.
    • The initial lie detector results were inconclusive. Tests taken with Gerry Torriello were inconclusive and that he referred them to Ed Gelb. Further it was stated that "jameson falsely posted that the test with Gerry Toriello had been inconclusive because of "polygrapher error". She later admitted this was not the case but did not explain why she made the statement in the first place."
    • Internet poster claims to have gotten further incriminating details about the polygraphs directly from Ed Gelb.
    • Others dismiss polygraphs as junk science. Patsy Ramsey herself at one point referred to polygraphs as "voodoo science."

Hoffman-Pugh Testimony

  • Linda Hoffman-Pugh, "the housekeeper, who testified in 1999, said the jury's focus was mostly on JonBenet's mother, The Denver Post reported. "It was almost all about Patsy, down to the underwear she had purchased from Bloomingdales," she said. "They wanted to know how she related to JonBenet. I felt in my heart they were going to indict Patsy."
  • She told the grand jury that Patsy had become moody before Christmas 1996. "I think she had multiple personalities. She'd be in a good mood and then she'd be cranky. She got into arguments with JonBenet about wearing a dress or about a friend coming over. I had never seen Patsy so upset. "I don't believe Patsy meant to kill her. I truly believe it was an accident that just continued."

Hid Behind Lawyers

  • 1. Denver DA Norm Early View. "Instead of crusading for justice, Patsy Ramsey avoided police questions in the murder of JonBenet, asserts former Denver DA Norm Early. 'She used lawyers, public relations gurus, private eyes and her own fat bankroll to erect a brick wall to shield herself from the kinds of questions you'd think she'd want to answer if she really had nothing to do with her daughter's death and wanted to find the killer. Why didn't she camp out in front of the Boulder police department instead of moving with her family to Atlanta? She was also remarkably evasive when confronted with forensic evidence that made her look guilty" (The Globe, December 25, 2006).
  • 2. Stories from The Daily Camera that relate to the Ramseys' silence and statements are here.

Pam Paugh Removed Evidence

  • After the Ramseys left their house, Patsy's sister Pam was permitted to return to pick up funeral clothing. As described by Steve Thomas, Pam removed much more than this.
  • "Missing Duct Tape and Cord Removed by Pam? Internet poster claims that the remaining duct tape and cord were part of a painting later taken from the house by Patsy's sister Pam, which explains these "missing" items.
  • Other Missing Items. PDI theorists argue that Pam's removal of evidence can explain virtually any of the "intruder" evidence alleged to be "missing" from the crime scene.

Boulder Grand Jury Indictment Not Dispositive

  • DA Never Signed Indictment.
    • DA View. The fact that Alex Hunter never signed the true bill or pursued the case demonstrates how weak it was. He judged a victory unattainable especially since no jury would be in a position to conclude beyond a reasonable doubt that Patsy, rather than John or someone else, actually committed the crime.
    • Grand Juror View. This is confirmed by the grand juror who broke secrecy rules told ABC's 20/20 in December 2016: "asked if the case had gone to trial, did he believe that the Ramseys would be convicted, the juror answered “no”."
  • Juries Are Not Infallible. OJ was acquitted by a jury even though there is widespread belief he is guilty based on the overwhelming amount of forensic evidence linking him to the killing of Nicole Simpson and Ron Goldman.

Boulder Law Enforcement Opinions

  • Judge Carnes Opinion. In a libel case brought by Chris Wolf against John and Patsy Ramsey, Judge Julie Carnes (2003) dismissed the case on grounds that Wolf had failed to prove that Patsy had killed her daughter. This conclusion is based on a combination of handwriting evidence, the presence of undisputed evidence that points to an intruder and the failure of certain evidence to support the particular theory--bed-wetting rage--advanced by Wolf.
  • Arndt Assessment. Linda Arndt, the police officer on the scene when JBR's body was found, had extensive contact with Patsy Ramsey in the years prior to her death. Following Patsy Ramsey's death, Arndt stated "There's no way to undo the wrong that was done (to the Ramsey family). But (it was) just to acknowledge what you could or couldn't do, and apologize for any error on my part and to offer myself in any way that was helpful to her." Arndt would not discuss her theories of the case, saying only that she doesn't hold the "prevailing view" within the Boulder Police Department, which increasingly keyed on Patsy Ramsey.

Implausibility of an "Accidental" Death

  • Unlikelihood of "Accidental" Head Blow
    • Expert Opinion. A review of literature in the Archives of Disease in Childhood observed: "Fractures are more likely to be caused by high force trauma, including abuse, if depressed, wider than 3 mm, multiple, stellate, crossing a suture line or of the base of the skull." 3 mm is just over 0.1 inches. JBR's fracture crossed multiple suture lines and was 1/2 inch wide in the portion of skulled "punched out" by the force of the blow.
    • Force of Blow. Internet poster Dave has done calculations showing the force required to punch out the piece of skull of the same size as the piece found punched out in the autopsy. His calculations suggest the force would have been considerable, ruling out an accidental fall.
  • Strangulation Inconsistent with Accident. "The Court has reviewed the autopsy photographs of JonBenet and they are gruesome. They reveal deep ligature marks around her neck as a result of being strangled by a garotte. As noted supra at 16-17, the evidence indicates that JonBenet was alive when strangled and may have tried to pull the garotte off her neck. Indeed, a neighbor heard the sound of screams. Likewise, part of the wood from the paint brush was found inside her vagina and the evidence indicates that she was sexually assaulted at a time when she was still alive.
  • Sadly, JonBenet's last moments were painful and terrifying. Admittedly, it is not unprecedented for parents to kill their children, sometimes even brutally. Yet, plaintiff's theory of the motivation for the crime--that Mrs. Ramsey accidentally hit JonBenet's head on a hard object, thought she was dead, and then tried to stage a hoax kidnapping--seems at odds with his belief that although Mrs. Ramsey later became aware that JonBenet was alive, she nonetheless proceeded to garotte, torture, and sexually assault her child. If Mrs. Ramsey had accidentally hit her child's head, one would think that, upon becoming aware that the child was still alive, the mother would have been just as likely to call an ambulance, as to commit a depraved torture/murder of the child." (Carnes 2003:Note 37).

Handwriting Evidence

  • Handwriting a Weak Match. PR's handwriting only weakly matches (see further discussion at The Ransom Note. "The Court agrees with plaintiff that, if plaintiff adduced clear and convincing evidence from which a reasonable jury could infer that Mrs. Ramsey wrote the Ransom Note, this evidence would then be sufficient to create a jury issue as to whether Mrs. Ramsey killed her child. In other words, if Mrs. Ramsey wrote the Ransom Note, this Court could conclude, as could a reasonable jury, that she was involved in the murder of her child." (Carnes 2003:105).
  • Experts Differ When Original Exemplars Not Examined. All of the examiners who relied on originals of the RN and exemplars concluded that the probability of a match was low, whereas experts and Internet analysts with widely varying degrees of training and expertise who rely on copies of the note and/or exemplars are much more likely to consider Patsy a match.

Lie Detector Evidence

  • Passed Lie Detector Test. PR passed a lie detector test; Ed Gelb's summary report to Lin Wood of tests conducted between May 6 and May 17, 2000 is here; a transcript of the press conference at which the lie detector test results were announced is here.
  • Polygraph Tests Generally. A 1997 amicus curiae brief before the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of U.S. v. Edward G. Scheffer summarizes the scientific evidence regarding polygraphs, concluding that "Research reveals that polygraph tests are generally accepted in the scientific community as evidenced by the volume of publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and by surveys of scientists. Moreover, the scientific literature clearly shows that the science of polygraph testing has advanced to the point where it can easily meet the evidentiary requirements of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579 (1993). There is a scientific theory that has been tested with the methods of science. The results of those scientific tests have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. There are know estimates of the error-rates of the commonly used field polygraph techniques. The polygraph is generally accepted by a majority of the informed scientific community as a valid scientific technique. There are standards for the administration of polygraph tests."
  • Test Accuracy Exceeds 90%. The above-cited brief further stated: "High quality scientific research from the laboratory and the field converge on the conclusion that the CQT is a highly accurate discriminator of truth tellers and deceivers. The research results converge on an accuracy estimate that exceeds 90 percent. Moreover, original examiners, who are most likely to offer testimony, produce even higher estimates of accuracy." "The scientific validity of a properly administered polygraph examination in a real life case compares favorably with such other forms of scientific evidence as x-ray films, electrocardiograms, fiber analysis, ballistics comparison tests, blood analysis, and is far more reliable than other forms of expert testimony (e.g., psychiatric and psychological opinions as to sanity, diminished capacity, dangerousness and many of the post traumatic stress/recovered memory syndromes)."
  • Tests for Defense Attorneys Not Less Valid. The brief further concluded: "one common criticism offered against the polygraph is that polygraph examinations conducted in confidence for a defense attorney are less valid that polygraph examinations conducted for law enforcement. This notion has been addressed scientifically and has been found to be without merit. We know of no evidence, published or otherwise, that supports this notion."

Other Forensic Evidence

  • DNA Evidence. PR's DNA does not match. According to Paula Woodward, "Currently, the 1. Colorado Bureau of Investigation DNA analysis, 2. the Cellmark DNA analysis, 3. the Greg LaBerge analysis, 4. the FBI CODIS acceptance of those similar DNA analyses and 5. one Bode Touch DNA analysis test result are similar to each other and exclude Patsy, John, Burke, John Andrew and Melinda Ramsey.
  • Bedwetting Genetic. Both Burke and JBR had bedwetting problems. In general, experts say 10% of 6-year olds wet the bed, so one cannot infer abuse from mere bedwetting. Moreover, Patsy had gotten used to this problem with Burke which further diminishes the odds that she would fly into a rage over this on the night before a family vacation on which they would be celebrating her 40th birthday.
  • Dry Bed Sheets. Regarding the bed-wetting rage theory, "crime scene photos taken the following morning do not indicate that JonBenet's bed was wet or suggest that the sheets to the bed had been changed. (Defs.' Exs. 56-58 attach. To Defs.' Summ. J. Mot.)" (Carnes 2003:Note 4). "there was no evidence that JonBenet's bed was wet on the night of her murder. (Smit Dep. at 145.)" (Carnes 2003:100). "Urine stains, however, were reported to have been found on JonBenet's underwear and leggings that she was wearing when her body was discovered. (See Coroner's Report at 2.) Thus, at some point after going to bed, but before being murdered, JonBenet urinated in her clothing. The evidence does not indicate whether this occurred in her bedroom, the basement, or during the route between the two rooms." (Carnes 2003:Note 4).
  • Cord Fibers Found in JBR Bed. "fibers consistent with those of the cord used to make the slip knots and garrote were found on JonBenet's bed. (SMF P 168; PSMF P 168.) This evidence is inconsistent with plaintiff's proposed timeline of events. That is, plaintiff has hypothesized that Mrs. Ramsey, in a moment of anger, had hit JonBenet's head against something hard in the second floor bathroom, thereby rendering her child unconscious, and then spent the rest of the night staging an elaborate kidnapping and torture scenario in the basement. Discovery of cord fibers, used to tie JonBenet's hands, in the latter's bedroom arguably undermines plaintiff's sequence of events." (Carnes 2003:93).

Character/Behavioral Evidence

  • John Ramsey Did Not Suspect Patsy. "Mr. Ramsey asserts, however, that he never once suspected his wife to be involved in the crime. (PSDMF PP 254-255.)" (Carnes 2003:13).
  • Crime Too Brutal for Parent to Commit. The brutality of the killing reportedly explains the failure of the Grand Jury to issue an indictment: The Globe reports that Grand Juror Michelle Czopek stated "The pictures were so horrible that the jurors felt it was absolutely inconceivable that any mother on Earth could have been capable of doing such a thing to their own child."
  • Patsy Depression Inconsistent with Joint Parental Staging. "The Court notes...that although plaintiff Chris Wolf presents such evidence in support of his theory that Mrs. Ramsey was depressed and that her depression contributed to her state of mind on the night of December 25, such evidence, if accepted as true, cuts against plaintiff's theory that Mr. Ramsey assisted his wife in the "cover-up" of JonBenet's murder. In other words, if the marriage was shaky, it arguably seems less likely that the innocent spouse would help the guilty spouse cover up her murder of their child." (Carnes 2003:13).
  • Why Would Patsy Create Evidence Pointing Towards Herself? docG writes: There are many reasons to conclude that Patsy Ramsey could not have committed this crime. For one thing, there is no real evidence of her involvement. While the note was written on her pad, with her pen, and her paintbrush was used to construct the "garotte," such links can be seen as evidence of innocence, not guilt. If Patsy is involved, she'd have been sure NOT to use anything that could be linked to her so personally. Same with her wearing the same outfit the next day. If she'd been up all night staging, she'd have been sure to change before calling 911. While her fibers were found at the crime scene, they could easily have been transferred there via JonBenet herself. Her handwriting can't be ruled out, but none of the experts who had an opportunity to examine the full range of her exemplars thought there was a convincing match. More significant, Patsy would have had no reason to write such a note AND then call the police while the body was still in the house. By calling the police she would have nullified the effect of her own note. The note was clearly part of a plan to stage a kidnapping. By calling 911 when she did, Patsy foiled that plan. Only an innocent person would have made the call so early.
  • PR Was a Good and Caring Mother. Ramsey gardenner Brian Scott recalled: "Patsy called from inside, ‘It’s time to start your homework.’ I remember thinking, There’s a mother who really cares about her children (PMPT:4).              (c) 2023